SWEDISH AND MIDDLE EASTERN THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF THE OMBUDSMAN INSTITUTION

Abstract: the article gives a brief historical overview of the history of the origin, formation and development of such a specific human rights institution as the Ombudsman. Various theories about the origin of the Ombudsman institution, which is common in different countries, are considered. Special attention is paid to the generally accepted “Swedish” theory-according to which the Ombudsman institution was formed in Sweden by Charles XII, and later spread throughout the Scandinavian countries, then Europe, and in our time around the world. As well as the “Middle East” theory, according to which the Ombudsman institution was formed in the middle East. In addition, the author notes the possibility of the influence of the middle Eastern model of the human rights defender on the formation and development of the traditional European Ombudsman institution – since Charles XII, after the defeat in the battle of Poltava, hid in the territory of the Ottoman Porte for many years, during which he could learn from the Turks some experience in the functioning of public authorities in the field of human rights protection. A linguistic analysis of the term “Ombudsman” is also made and the definition of the concept of muhtasib is given. Some features of the development and functioning of the Ombudsman institution, both at the initial stage and in modern times, are analyzed.

Keywords: Human Rights Commissioner, Ombudsman, Mukhtasib, Privy Councilor, Protection of Human Rights, Parliamentary control

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